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07 Debugging and Profiling


debuggger: reloadware/reloadium: Advanced Hot Reloading & Profiling for Python

online shell scripting checker (use pre-commit hooks instead): ShellCheck – shell script analysis tool

hyperfine for blackbox-benmarking: sharkdp/hyperfine: A command-line benchmarking tool (

call graphs for code/file structrue: Command-line Usage — Python Call Graph 1.0.1 documentation (

profile a Python script

# check corresponding manpage for detailed usage e.g. sort by time etc.
python -m cProfile
python -m line_profiler
python -m memory_profiler

Last update: April 14, 2023